Everyone’s 2nd chess book 学习笔记

Published on 2020 - 06 - 28

Dan Heisman

The 11 Most Common Mistakes of Players Rated 800-1400

1 Missing a simple tactic
2 Not looking at what your oppo-
nent is threatening
3 Not getting all pieces into play 4 Not knowing basic opening
traps
5 Phantom fears
6 Overly worried about the value
of the pieces
7 Overly worried about positional
liabilities
8 Playing too fast
9 Not looking for a better move
10 Being afraid of the opponent 11 Worrying about your ·rating

BONUS MISTAKE #1 1

  1. Worrying about your rating.

    In the long run your rating does not go up or down because of any particular set of wins and losses, but because you got worse or, hope fully, better. If you want your rating to go up, don't worry about losing, worry about learning.
    You should look at losing not as a loss of ego, but as a learning experience.

Ifevery time you lose, you learn the cause of the loss and make a positive correction for the future, you will soon be a good player.
You usually learn more from losing than from winning. This is because losing always in volvesamistakeofthemagnitude worth noting, and also because the opponents you lose to are, usually superior to the ones you beat, and thus are better able to demonstrate something worth learning.
It is worth repeating: you learn more when you lose, and getting better involves knowing more.
Therefore those that play stronger players enough to lose often, and are willing to learn from their loss es (write down your games and go overthemwithyourinstructor!...) will get better the fastest.

So next time your instructor is going over your game and tells you "that is a bad move," don't take it personally! He is trying to point out to you the kinds of mis- takes you are making so you will recognize them and, hopefully, not repeat them whenever a similar sit-
uation arises.

To summarize, if you want to improve you should:

  1. Learn more about chess through professional in structors, books, videos, computers, etc. ("theory"),
  2. Play as much as possible, both in number of games and in number of moves ("practice"), and
  3. 1. Learn from your mistakes. Record your games and go over them with a strong player to identify your mistakes so that you have less chance of repeating them. For non beginners, enter the game into a computer using the analysis mode of a strong chess program; this is the best way to spot more ad vanced tactical mistakes. ("feedback")

Often the best chessplayers are not the ones who initially make the fewest mistakes, but the ones who are able to improve by not re peating their mistakes (or at least repeating them less often) !

Developing Board Vision

Developing Board Vision to Reinforce Where the Pieces Can Move

  1. Pawn-taking The tutor then puts a pawn of the op posite color on the board (e.g., ifthe student has a white Rook the tutor places black pawns).
  2. Pawn-taking with obstacles 在有障碍物时吃兵
  3. Ruler force fields:
  4. Knight "Tours"
  5. Dan's Special Knight Ob stacleCourse

Developing Checkmate Vision

There is a difference between recognizing (statically) what is a checkmate and learning how to give (dynamically) a simple (Q, Q&R, 2 Q's, 2 R's, R) check- mate.

Developing the Ability to Count Material on Potential Exchanges

  1. whenapieceisbeingattacked and can be taken for free, and
  2. evaluating potential exchanges t o determine i f they come out ahead, behind, or even (I call an exchange that comes out even "a fair trade")

As a ROUGH guide, consider Knights and Bishops as worth
about 3Pawns (not 3 points!), Rooks 5 Pawns, and Queens 9. Pawns, ofcourse, are worth 1. We
will use these values in the count-
mg exercises.

Developing Tactical Board Vision Based Upon Rating

In a sense, any book on tactics is trying to help a student develop tactical "vision."
We can separate tactical knowledge into two admit tedly not independent parts:

  1. those patterns which contain a tactic, and
  2. The knowledge of tactical motifs and how to analyze them to see if there is a satisfactory "com bination."

400-600: (Low Level 4)

Focuses almost exclusively on his ownpieces; usually doesn't consider opponent s possibilities.
PLAN: This is the level most move. Getting these players to people see in youngsters (espe- slow down is also a major chal cially ages 6-8) who say "they lenge. Players at this level should
can play chess." Because of the way that the brain develops, many youngsters younger than age eight seem to have difficulty under- standing that there are two players in every game and both are equally important!

Be Imaginative

Board Vision and Beginner's Guidelines

  1. Think and take your time: This is the granddaddy ofall chess maxims.
  2. Think with your head, not with your hands
  3. Before you move, visu alize your possible moves and make sure ALL your pieces are safe; conversely, look at your opponent's position-if one or more of his/her pieces are not safe, you might strongly consider taking them!
  4. Ifyou see a good move, look for a better one!
  5. You can't play what you don't see-Until you develop the board vision or the patience to look for all reasonable moves and replies, it is impossible to decide which one is best.
  6. In the opening, you have 3 main objectives: GetoutALLyourpieces(but not all your pawns): The sub guideline here is very impor tant thus worth emphasizing: Try to move every piece (not pawn) once. keeping all your pieces safe. Get some control of the center, Castle
  7. In the opening, a general order of development might be :

"Knights Toward the Center Then Bishops May Enter
Castle Your King... Queen up a Little
Rooks to the Middle."
Don't move more than four pawns, and these should not be Rook pawns, but rather pawns that control the center and/or get your Bishops in the game. Rooks move to the middle along the first rank-not by moving the Rook's pawns up and then moving the Rooks up and over. Also, the Bish op on the side where the King will castle often moves first, then cas tling, followed by the development ofthe other Bishop.

  1. After the opening, when looking for your or your oppo nent's best move, first try look ing at (in order):

    Checks
    • Captures, and
    • Attacks ("Threats")-which are
    usually checks or captures you can do next move

  2. As a ROUGH guide, con sider Knights and Bishops as worth about 3 Pawns, Rooks 5 Pawns, and Queens 9. Pawns, of course, are worth 1 pawn each
  3. Look what your opponent is doing-your pieces are NOT more important than his!
  4. Knight on the rim-Your future is dim
  5. 多子兑子,少子兑兵
  6. The more you are win ning, the more you should think defense; the more you are losing, the more you should think of fense.快要赢时注意防守,快输棋时候注意进攻。
  7. Make sure you don't fall for an easy mate
  8. Keep It Simple (KIS)
  9. Pay attention to what your opponent is doing:
  10. For most beginners, the motto "Who ever makes the next to the last mistake wins" holds true. I have found that telling my students to pay special attention when things get complicated is good advice.
  11. Don't move out yourQueen too early.
  12. Passed Pawns must be pushed.
  13. Rooks belong on open (or semi-open) files.
  14. Rooks are powerful on the 7th rank。 Pig
  15. In the endgame, the King is a strong piece and belongs in the center. (The King has a fight ing "value" of 4+ pawns.)
  16. In middlegame positions with Rooks and/or Queens, move a pawn up to create "luft" for your King and prevent back rank mates.

Don't Make Lemonade When You Should be Making Ice Tea

LARGE ADVANTAGE

  1. When you are "way up" in material, neutralize your opponents "threats" and the game will usually be over quickly.
  2. The more you are winning, the more you should think defense first; the more you are losing, the more you should think offense. a. Don't waste time winning a pawn here or there. b. Be extra careful and keep the position simple. c. Take time to safeguard your King. d. Pay close attention to what your opponent is doing. e. You have more pieces, so make sure you are using them all. f. Don't worry about the little things.

Board Vision and Time

Which comes first:

  1. Knowing more about evaluating positions, which then requires

you to take more time in order to move, or

  1. Understanding that taking more time to move is beneficial, and

so you take more time and see more?
I would like to think that possibility #2, the realization that taking more time is beneficial, would be the main reason for students to play slower (then I could get students to slow down just by telling them how beneficial it is). However, from my own experience as a beginner and as a full-time chess instructor, I would say that both #1 and #2 are required to slow down most beginners.

The Tortoise always beats the hare•••

"What if you played a clone of yourself and one of you took 2-3 seconds on each move and the other took 1-2 minutes? How many games out of a hundred would the one playing slowly win?"

  1. Sit on your hands
  2. Pretend the pieces are HOT and heat up with each move:
  3. When yousee a good move, look for a better one
  4. Write your move down first, and then do a "Sanity Check":
  5. Write down some guide line targets for time on your scoresheet before the game:
  6. 记录你和你的对手每步的剩余时间

Just Because It's Forced

在你威胁了对方时候,对方只动了回应威胁的棋,你要考虑的是,如果没有威胁,对方会如何走棋?

Assume the Best

to play "non-beginner" chess, a player has to at least do the following:

  1. 花时间
  2. 在你碰子之前就视觉化你的走子
  3. 确保你的所有棋是安全的
  4. 如果找到好棋,找一个更好的
  5. 假定对手会走好棋

The Three Levels of Chess Thought

  1. "FLIP-COIN" Chess:
  2. "HOPE" Chess
  3. "REAL" Chess

So that is the secret of Real chess, you must:

  1. make sure that your think deep enough to ensure that you can make it to the next move without facing threats you cannot meet, and
  2. do this every move, not just most of them.

Don't Believe Him!

Phantom Threats

Phantom threats occur because of laziness or haziness. 懒惰或者模糊不清。

Chess Etiquette 下棋礼仪

  • Talking is a no-no, Chess is a Quiet Game !
  • Greet Opponent, Always greet your opponent at the start of a game. A handshake and a friendly "Hi, my name is ____" is the very minimum. Most players, atthe start ofa tournament game with an unfamiliar opponent, check the player's name (and rat ing!) to see ifthey are playing the correct player, and make a little small talk such as asking how the opponent is doing, where are they from, and even wishing them "Good luck" (even ifthey don't re ally mean it!) etc.
  • Resigning 如果对方比你厉害好多,在劣势时候,你可以马上认输,或者你想学习下对方如何将杀自己,那么就一直下,直到被将杀,如果你在被将杀前认输,这是非常不礼貌的,浪费对方时间。前提是对方比你厉害很多。如果对方也是初学者,不知道如何将杀,建议不要认输。
  • CALLING "CHECK" You don't have to call out "Check."
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